7月4日はアメリカ独立記念日(INDEPENDENCE DAY/4th of July)です。この日は、1776年の7月4日にトマス・ジェファーソンによって独立宣言が交付され、各植民地がイギリスからの独立が宣言されたことを祝う日です。（※実際に独立したのは、7年後のパリ条約において）この日は、家族で過ごすというよりは、友達同士でバーベキューやピクニック、そしてパレードを見に行き、夜は打ち上げ花火をしたり見たりするというパターンが多いようですね！
【アメリカ独立宣言 アメリカどくりつせんげんとは (Declaration of Independence)】
Independence Day is the national holiday of the United States of America commemorating the signing of the Declaration of Independence by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. At the time of the signing the US consisted of 13 colonies under the rule of England’s King George III. There was growing unrest in the colonies concerning the taxes that had to be paid to England. This was commonly referred to as “Taxation without Representation” as the colonists did not have any representation in the English Parliament and had no say in what went on. As the unrest grew in the colonies, King George sent extra troops to help control any rebellion. In 1774 the 13 colonies sent delegates to Philadelphia Pennsylvania to form the First Continental Congress. The delegates were unhappy with England, but were not yet ready to declare war.
In April 1775 as the King’s troops advanced on Concord Massachusetts Paul Revere would sound the alarm that “The British are coming, the British are coming” as he rode his horse through the late night streets. The battle of Concord and it’s “shot heard round the world” would mark the unofficial beginning of the colonies war for Independence.
The following May the colonies again sent delegates to the Second Continental Congress. For almost a year the congress tried to work out it’s differences with England, again without formally declaring war.
By June 1776 their efforts had become hopeless and a committee was formed to compose a formal declaration of independence. Headed by Thomas Jefferson, the committee included John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Philip Livingston and Roger Sherman. Thomas Jefferson was chosen to write the first draft which was presented to the congress on June 28. After various changes a vote was taken late in the afternoon of July 4th. Of the 13 colonies, 9 voted in favor of the Declaration, 2 – Pennsylvania and South Carolina voted No, Delaware undecided and New York abstained.
To make it official John Hancock, President of the Continental Congress, signed the Declaration of Independence. It is said that John Hancock’s signed his name “with a great flourish” so “King George can read that without spectacles!.”
The following day copies of the Declaration were distributed. The first newspaper to print the Declaration was the Pennsylvania Evening Post on July 6, 1776. On July 8th the Declaration had it’s first public reading in Philadelphia’s Independence Square. Twice that day the Declaration was read to cheering crowds and pealing church bells. Even the bell in Independence Hall was rung. The “Province Bell” would later be renamed “Liberty Bell” after it’s inscription –
Proclaim Liberty Throughout All the Land Unto All the Inhabitants Thereof
And although the signing of the Declaration was not completed until August, the 4th of July has been accepted as the official anniversary of United States independence. The first Independence Day celebration took place the following year – July 4 1777. By the early 1800s the traditions of parades, picnics, and fireworks were established as the way to celebrate America’s birthday. And although fireworks have been banned in most places because of their danger, most towns and cities usually have big firework displays for all to see and enjoy
The idea for creating a day for children to honor their fathers began in Spokane, Washington. A woman by the name of Sonora Smart Dodd thought of the idea for Father’s Day while listening to a Mother’s Day sermon in 1909. Having been raised by her father, Henry Jackson Smart, after her mother died, Sonora wanted her father to know how special he was to her. It was her father that made all the parental sacrifices and was, in the eyes of his daughter, a courageous, selfless, and loving man. Sonora’s father was born in June, so she chose to hold the first Father’s Day celebration in Spokane, Washington on the 19th of June, 1910.
In 1926, a National Father’s Day Committee was formed in New York City. Father’s Day was recognized by a Joint Resolution of Congress in 1956. In 1972, President Richard Nixon established a permanent national observance of Father’s Day to be held on the third Sunday of June. So Father’s Day was born in memory and gratitude by a daughter who thought that her father and all good fathers should be honored with a special day just like we honor our mothers on Mother’s Day.
That is the thankless position of the father in the family-the provider for all. and the enemy of all. — J. August Strindberg, Swedish writer
It doesn’t matter who my father was; it matters who I remember he was. — Anne Sexton, U.S. poet.
One father is more than a hundred schoolmasters. — English proverb (17th century)
I cannot think of any need in childhood as strong as the need for a father’s protection. — Sigmoid Freud
If the new American father feels bewildered and even defeated, let him take comfort from the fact that whatever he does in any fathering situation has a fifty percent chance of being right. — Bill Cobs
“Mom, why can’t I go swimming?” “The water is too deep.” “But Daddy is swimming!!” “He’s insured.”
The father said to his child, “You know, son, at your age, George Washington wasn’t listening to music and playing. He was already a bold courier for the army.”And the boy said, ” I know, Dad. And at your age, he was President of the United States, wasn’t he?”
★HAPPY MOTHER’S DAY →母の日おめでとう！ ★HAPPY MOTHER’S DAY! Blessings on your Special Day! →ハッピーマザーズデイ！特別なこの日に祝福がありますように！ ★Thanks for supporting me all these years Mom →ママ、今までずっと私を支えてくれてありがとう ★A Big Hug on Mother’s Day! →母の日に大きなハグを・・・！ ★Mom, you are my hero (angel)! →お母さん、あなたは私のヒーロー(エンジェル）よ！ ★To the most precious woman in the world →世界で一番大切な女性に・・・ ★I luv you mom. →ママ、大好きよ！